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First, Because Math. Remember this.

Now on the real subject. How to actually setup Distributed Cache and Security Token Service in SharePoint with SAML (ADFS) with Load Balancing across a 6 tier farm. There is a literal ton of information on these services. Problem is none of it is fully put together to understand what is what and how it affects your farm, your users and your sleep. For what it’s worth I will cite the appropriate people as your information finally lead me to the working configuration.

First up is Distributed Cache (DC). First, make sure you have AppFabric CU5 or higher installed. It is not rolled up with SharePoint or Windows updates so you have to get it yourself. First make sure you understand the reason behind DC. It saves the login token so that your user doesn’t have to login each time. This applies to Forms and SAML Claims users. First thing to do is find out which servers need to run DC and AppFabric. First go to a WFE server and run Get-CacheHost, you might need to use Use-CacheCluster command first. Then run

Get-SPServiceInstance | ? {($_.service.tostring()) -eq "SPDistributedCacheService Name=AppFabricCachingService"} | select Server, Status

Those commands are thanks to Samuel Betts at <>. I highly suggest you read that post before continuing reading this.

Do Not run DC on a search crawler. Bad things will happen, like AppFabric service crashing and blowing out all the other cache databases. You have been warned.

Now there is a very important thing you need to do before continuing. You need to login to each server that is running a WFE or Search Query. You will need to run Add-SPDistributedCacheServiceInstance – which adds the server to AppFabric and SharePoint both. Then run

Set-NetFirewallRule -DisplayName "File and Printer Sharing (echo request - ICMPv4-In)" -Enabled True

This information is from Sahil Malik <>. Why is it needed? Sahil describes it very well, and you can read his post.

Now you are sort of setup, maybe. So have you configured your Trusted Identity Token Issuer? No?, go do that then come back.

Now we need to setup DC and STS. First there is a DC Bug <>. Read his post to get more information, however some of his information is a little off, specifically MaxConnectionsToServer. This property specifies how many connections are allowed to the Cache server to check for a login, which sounds like you want it high to accommodate the number of users you have. However M$ support informed us after three weeks that this value is limited to the number of processors you have. So keeping the default value of 2 is probably best. However if you have a beefier machine with more processors then up this. If  you set this higher then you will get intermittent hangs and high memory usage.

RequestTimeout = # of milliseconds to wait to find logon token. This is not your friend in SAML Claims. Setting this higher to say, 10 seconds seems to be good. Basically you want to avoid going to local cache as this almost always makes a reauth.

The other thing to consider here is your load balancer. Do you use persistence or not? F5 says to not use persistence for SP2013. Supposedly DC works good enough, of course if it did this blog post wouldn’t exist, nor would the others I linked to. So I caution you that if you don’t user persistence, you better get this right or you could fall into a bad reauth cycle.

The code below only needs to run once. Though it wouldn’t hurt to check that they received the update with the Get command below. Then restart the service on each server.

$timeout = 10000
$maxConnections = [Max # Processors per WFE]

$DLTC = Get-SPDistributedCacheClientSetting -ContainerType DistributedLogonTokenCache
$DLTC.RequestTimeout = $timeout
$DLTC.ChannelOpenTimeOut = $timeout
$DLTC.MaxConnectionsToServer = $maxConnections
Set-SPDistributedCacheClientSetting -ContainerType DistributedLogonTokenCache $DLTC
Get-SPDistributedCacheClientSetting -ContainerType DistributedLogonTokenCache

$DLVSC = Get-SPDistributedCacheClientSetting -ContainerType DistributedViewStateCache 
$DLVSC.ChannelOpenTimeOut = $timeout
$DLVSC.RequestTimeout = $timeout
$DLVSC.MaxConnectionsToServer = $maxConnections
Set-SPDistributedCacheClientSetting -ContainerType DistributedViewStateCache -DistributedCacheClientSettings $DLVSC
Get-SPDistributedCacheClientSetting -ContainerType DistributedViewStateCache 

# This should run [Restart-Service -Name AppFabricCachingService] on each cache host

Don’t use Session Cookies unless you have a documented security reason. Otherwise your users will hate you. You can change it, but I highly suggest you don’t. Now on to more math. MaxServiceTokenCacheItems and MaxLogonTokenCacheItems are in memory tokens given by the SP STS, per server. You want this to match the MaxConnectionsToServer setting if your load balancer is running persistence. If not you might need a higher value. The Service Token is used whenever your user hits the Search Query or other service application service. The LogonTokenCacheExpirationWindow is used for sliding sessions. Again more math.

The code below only needs to run once on the farm. However you will need to iisreset each server.

$maxTokens = [# of concurrent user / WFEs]
$sts = Get-SPSecurityTokenServiceConfig
$sts.UseSessionCookies = $false
$sts.MaxServiceTokenCacheItems = $maxTokens
$sts.MaxLogonTokenCacheItems = $maxTokens
$sts.LogonTokenCacheExpirationWindow = (New-TimeSpan -second [MATH])

After I got this all configured and run an 8 hour test, the farm performed great and as we had originally expected. As always your value may very.

Now I need a beer and cigar. Seriously though I hope this helps someone and keeps the frustration down.


So I’m sure I’m not the only person who needs to do site backups. So we needed to schedule site backups every night and I’m very lazy. I don’t want to think about adding a new site collection to a script or csv file. I need to be sure all the backups are date stamped. I need to be able to get all site collections that match a certain identity and skip all the mysite collections. So using regex and ForEach I can backup which ever site collections I want.

First add the snapin and set our date string

Add-PSSnapin "Microsoft.SharePoint.PowerShell"

$DateStr = (Get-Date -Format yyyy_MM_dd)


The regex here is matching all identities of (sites|search), which are the only site collections that will be selected for backup.

Get-SPSite -Identity "|search)/.+" -Regex | ForEach-Object {


The internals of the ForEach. Basically I want to get the ServerRelativePath and replace the “/” with “-“. Then put my path together with that, the date and backup folder and then back it up.

$SiteName = $_.ServerRelativeURL -replace '(/)','-'

$path = ("D:\Backups\" + $DateStr + $SiteName + ".bak")

Backup-SPSite -Identity $_.ID -Path $path




NOTE: Microsoft is aware of this issue and are currently working on resolving it on their end.

With that in mind, if you have users that can’t login to Office 365 because they have already created a Microsoft LiveID with their email address, or UPN, don’t fret. You can run a simple PowerShell script in Azure Active Directory Manager to get them fixed. In our testing this script worked 100% of the time.

Basically what happens is, when the user is created via Dir Sync (aka FIM) the user account (UPN), for whatever reason, is not taken control of by Office 365. So when the user tries to login to Office 365, the O365 login gets confused with two identities and doesn’t let them login. So when you run the PS script in the Azure PowerShell it changes the UPN of the user to the onmicrosoft tenant then flips them back to your domain. When it flips back to your domain then Azure goes and takes control of the account across all Microsoft spaces.

First step get your O365 Creds

$cred = get-credential
Connect-MsolService -credential $cred

Now flip your user and gain full control of their account

$name1 = "user@[]"
$name2 = "user@[tenant]"
Set-MsolUserPrincipalName -UserPrincipalName $name1 –NewUserPrincipalName $name2
Set-MsolUserPrincipalName –UserPrincipalName $name2 –NewUserPrincipalName $name1

Apparently Amazon doesn’t think that people want to know where their stuff is coming from or how long it’s going to take to get there. I highly disagree. Recently I bought some items from Amazon and had I known that they would be shipped four business days later and take five days to get to me (a total of nine business days) I would have gladly paid the extra $5 from another seller that was located much closer.

Maybe some customers doesn’t care how long it takes and they want the cheapest. However what if a customer has one scheduled free day in their busy life schedule and don’t want to pay exorbitant expedited shipping costs. We should be able to tell from the product page that the item is coming from CA or MD. eBay tells me this information, Amazon should too. In addition to this there should be another piece of information that tells how long until that seller normally ships, which is information Amazon already has.

Seller  Location Price Avg. Time To Ship (days) Days to Receive in CA once shipped Total days to receive Cost increase to get it faster
A MD  $    64.99 3 5 8  $                      –
B NY  $    68.99 1 5 6  $                 4.00
C FL  $    65.99 2 4 6  $                 1.00
D NV  $    69.99 1 2 3  $                 5.00
E CA  $    67.99 3 2 5  $                 3.00
F TX  $    67.99 3 3 6  $                 3.00

In the above table you can see that the prices here are very similar. However the seller that is furthest away from me is also the cheapest and has the longest time until delivery. Where as the seller in my own state is marginally higher, and the seller with the highest price is just one state away. Given UPS standards of shipping we can calculate that time until I would actually receive the items. In this matrix I would have been willing to pay the extra $3 or $5 to get my item before the day I have scheduled to do the work I want to do. Instead I will have to reschedule to now three weeks later cause I’m busy enough I don’t have time to do it any other time. At this point I could have bought it from a local seller, which contributes to my local economy and waited the extra week I’m having to wait anyway.

The point is that the consumer should be given the information to make their own decision and appropriate decision at that. Don’t withhold information that can help a customer make a better decision for themselves.

So we just had this interesting problem where our timer job lost permissions, not sure why yet, and nothing would run, including the problem that lead us to that which was User Profile Sync (UPS). After fixing the timer job issue UPS wouldn’t start correctly. Well turns out there is a bug that carried over from SP2010 where if the UPS can’t find a valid certificate it will try to create a new one. Since we tried to start the UPS before fixing the timer job permission error UPS tried to create a new certificate because it couldn’t find the existing one. So then we tried to start UPS and received another error. Now we had two valid certificates and UPS was unhappy. So then we had to delete the older certificate and restart UPS. Now it’s running as we expect. Just in case anyone runs into UPS problems, you can bet with 90% probability that your problems are permission related, the other 10% is something that happened because you had permission problems and now you need to fix that.

So Blitz, in what appears to be a drunken Sake decision, decided to show boost in their DTT (dual turbo timer) in hkPa, or hecto-kilo Pascals. Problem with this is no one uses hkPa except them and it isn’t really a standard measure of pressure, per say. In fact it must be something they sort of made up to be cool and different, because the figure they use only sort of makes sense. First it is not a HectoPascal (hPa, 100 pascals), otherwise 1 would equal .014503774 PSI. It also is not a KiloPascal (kPa, 1,000 pascals) which equals .14503774 PSI. But you know what does equal 14.5 PSI, 1 bar or 100,000 pascals, and when you multiply hPa to kPa you get 100,000, or 1 bar. So why didn’t they call it bar, again one can only guess. But now you now more then you ever wanted to know about it, and how the math works that 1 hkPa (or bar) equals 14.5 PSI.

TL;DR, really that lazy huh? Well don’t blame me when you blow up your motor for not understanding the math behind making your engine run.

Multiply the boost readout by 14.5 and you’ll get PSI. Here’s a little cheat table I put together in Excel.

0.5 0.03 9 0.62 17.5 1.21
1 0.07 9.5 0.66 18 1.24
1.5 0.10 10 0.69 18.5 1.28
2 0.14 10.5 0.72 19 1.31
2.5 0.17 11 0.76 19.5 1.34
3 0.21 11.5 0.79 20 1.38
3.5 0.24 12 0.83 20.5 1.41
4 0.28 12.5 0.86 21 1.45
4.5 0.31 13 0.90 21.5 1.48
5 0.34 13.5 0.93 22 1.52
5.5 0.38 14 0.97 22.5 1.55
6 0.41 14.5 1.00 23 1.59
6.5 0.45 15 1.03 23.5 1.62
7 0.48 15.5 1.07 24 1.66
7.5 0.52 16 1.10 24.5 1.69
8 0.55 16.5 1.14 25 1.72
8.5 0.59 17 1.17        

We are in the midst of building a custom portal for SCSM, contact us if you’d like to purchase it from us. Sales pitches aside Trying to get multiple pieces of information and sort it from SCSM isn’t easy. First of all you have to deal with the new Criteria garbage to query SCSM, as if LINQ or CAML wasn’t good enough, let’s create a brand new querying language that only product will use. Seriously Microsoft, get some unity already. I digress….

Getting incidents is pretty simple, however using that object isn’t. Rob Ford does a great job at trying to help understand it ( That said, how do you “order by” or get more information like Status? It isn’t “easy peezie lemon squeezie” but you should be able to make sense of it. This took a few days to put together from a few different sources, so hopefully this will help somebody.

These code sample are in order, so copy each section and paste then your controller should work.

This should look familiar. We get our management packs and our user and build our first Criteria.

 var strSetting = ConfigurationManager.AppSettings["Group"];<br /> EnterpriseManagementGroup mg = new EnterpriseManagementGroup(strSetting);</p><p>//get our user<br /> var strUserName = GetIdentityUsername();<br /> //build criteria to get incidents where user is AffectedUser<br /> var strCriteria = String.Format(@"$Context/Path[Relationship='WorkItem!System.WorkItemAffectedUser' TypeConstraint='System!System.Domain.User']/Property[Type='System!System.Domain.User']/UserName$ Equal" + strUserName + @"");</p><p>//Get the management pack for Incident and projection<br /> ManagementPackClass mpcIncident = mg.EntityTypes.GetClass(new Guid("a604b942-4c7b-2fb2-28dc-61dc6f465c68"));<br /> ManagementPackTypeProjection mptpIncident = mg.EntityTypes.GetTypeProjection(new Guid("1862825e-21bc-3ab2-223e-2a7f2439ba75"));<br /> ManagementPack mpIncidentLibrary = mg.ManagementPacks.GetManagementPack(new Guid("DD26C521-7C2D-58C0-0980-DAC2DACB0900"));<br /> ObjectProjectionCriteria opcIncidents = new ObjectProjectionCriteria(strCriteria, mptpIncident, mpIncidentLibrary, mg);

The tricky part is order by. Well there is another new method call ObjectQueryOptions. It is some loose form of XML where you add some references to the management packs that you want to user to get data and how to setup the QueryOptions. the IObjectProjectionReader is the same but you add the new Query Options Object.

var strQuery = String.Format(@"&lt;Sorting xmlns=""http://Microsoft.EnterpriseManagement.Core.Sorting""&gt;<br /> &lt;Reference Id=""System.WorkItem.Incident.Library"" Version=""7.5.3079.0"" Alias=""WorkItem"" PublicKeyToken=""31bf3856ad364e35""/&gt;</p><p>&lt;Reference Id=""Microsoft.Windows.Library"" Version=""7.5.3079.0"" Alias=""WinLib"" PublicKeyToken=""31bf3856ad364e35""/&gt;<br /> &lt;SortProperty SortOrder=""Ascending""&gt;$Context/Property[Type='WorkItem!System.WorkItem.Incident']/Priority$&lt;/SortProperty&gt;<br /> &lt;SortProperty SortOrder=""Descending""&gt;$Context/Property[Type='WorkItem!System.WorkItem.Incident']/Id$&lt;/SortProperty&gt;<br /> &lt;/Sorting&gt;");<br /> ObjectQueryOptions orderedIncidents = new ObjectQueryOptions();<br /> orderedIncidents.AddSortProperty(strQuery, mptpIncident, mg);</p><p>IObjectProjectionReader&lt;EnterpriseManagementObject&gt; oprIncidents = mg.EntityObjects.GetObjectProjectionReader&lt;EnterpriseManagementObject&gt;(opcIncidents, orderedIncidents);

So now you have your data, but it’s all an object and you want to show the priority to the user. Well half of the fields in SCSM are relationships. So you have to setup a new Criteria and get a single workitem, for which you will need a foreach loop to get the status for each. Notice we are using a datatable which we will pass through to the View.

//create datatable to pass to view<br /> DataTable dt = new DataTable();<br /> DataRow dr = null;</p><p>dt.Columns.Add(new DataColumn("Incident", typeof(string)));<br /> dt.Columns.Add(new DataColumn("Status", typeof(string)));<br /> dt.Columns.Add(new DataColumn("Last Modified", typeof(string)));</p><p>foreach (EnterpriseManagementObjectProjection emopIncident in oprIncidents)<br /> {<br /> dr = dt.NewRow();<br /> dr["Incident"] = emopIncident.Object.DisplayName;</p><p>//This is the work item (such as a service request) ID that we're looking for<br /> String workItemId = emopIncident.Object.Name;</p><p>//Setup the criteria. This will instruct service manager to "Get me the incident request with Id: IR{0}"<br /> //Get the system.workitem class<br /> ManagementPackClass mpcWorkitem = mg.EntityTypes.GetClass(new Guid("f59821e2-0364-ed2c-19e3-752efbb1ece9"));</p><p>//Get system.workitem.library mp<br /> ManagementPack mpWorkitem = mg.ManagementPacks.GetManagementPack(new Guid("405d5590-b45f-1c97-024f-24338290453e"));</p><p>string strIncidentSearchCriteria = "";</p><p>//Attempt to get results for single workitem<br /> strIncidentSearchCriteria = String.Format(@"&lt;Criteria xmlns=""http://Microsoft.EnterpriseManagement.Core.Criteria/""&gt;" +<br /> "&lt;Expression&gt;" +<br /> "&lt;SimpleExpression&gt;" +<br /> "&lt;ValueExpressionLeft&gt;" +<br /> "&lt;Property&gt;$Context/Property[Type='System.WorkItem']/Id$&lt;/Property&gt;" +<br /> "&lt;/ValueExpressionLeft&gt;" +<br /> "&lt;Operator&gt;Equal&lt;/Operator&gt;" +<br /> "&lt;ValueExpressionRight&gt;" +<br /> "&lt;Value&gt;" + workItemId + "&lt;/Value&gt;" +<br /> "&lt;/ValueExpressionRight&gt;" +<br /> "&lt;/SimpleExpression&gt;" +<br /> "&lt;/Expression&gt;" +<br /> "&lt;/Criteria&gt;");</p><p>EnterpriseManagementObjectCriteria emocWorkitem = new EnterpriseManagementObjectCriteria((string)strIncidentSearchCriteria, mpcWorkitem, mpWorkitem, mg);<br /> IObjectReader&lt;EnterpriseManagementObject&gt; readerWorkitem = mg.EntityObjects.GetObjectReader&lt;EnterpriseManagementObject&gt;(emocWorkitem, ObjectQueryOptions.Default);<br /> EnterpriseManagementObject emoWorkItem = readerWorkitem.ElementAt(0);

Great I have my single workitem, now I need to get the status. Remember everything is a relationship. So you will have loop through the Status List until it matches and then output that. However if a status is empty it will throw an exception, so try catch to suppress errors. Then finish up the rest and add the row to the table.

String workItemStatus = "";</p><p>//you need a try catch for when the status is empty.<br /> try<br /> {<br /> //Get Status DisplayName for title<br /> Guid gStatusCategory = new Guid("5e2d3932-ca6d-1515-7310-6f58584df73e");</p><p>foreach (ManagementPackEnumeration mpeClass in mg.EntityTypes.GetChildEnumerations(gStatusCategory, TraversalDepth.Recursive))<br /> {<br /> if (mpeClass.Id.ToString() == emoWorkItem[mpcIncident, "Status"].Value.ToString()) ;<br /> {<br /> workItemStatus = mpeClass.DisplayName;<br /> break;<br /> }<br /> }<br /> }<br /> catch (Exception ex)<br /> {<br /> //workItemStatus = ex.Message + " | " + ex.Source;<br /> }</p><p>dr["Status"] = workItemStatus;<br /> dr["Last Modified"] = emopIncident.Object.LastModified.ToLocalTime();<br /> dt.Rows.Add(dr);<br /> }</p><p>return View(dt);



I might be late to the game, but I didn’t see this covered anywhere. When you are adding custom user controls in SharePoint make sure that it is wrapped in a div that has the class of “ms-core-overlay”, which ensures that the this control will have the branding, or CSS styling, correctly applied to the user control, otherwise it doesn’t have it and it look weird. For instance the background fade or darkening CSS would not be applied.

In my case I needed to add a root header menu for all masterpages that pulls from a list at the Root Web.

<!-- Root Header Menu -->
<div class="ms-core-overlay"> <!-- this ensures the branding options are correctly applied to the root header menu area, but under it -->
<div id="header" class="nav">
<!--SPM:<uc1:RootHeader runat="server" id="RootHeader"/>-->
<!-- End Root Header Menu -->

My wife came up with this, so all the credit goes to her. This was absolutely awesome and in my opinion a confidence boost rather than a “what’s wrong with me” moment. Our son has ADD, maybe even ADHD. He got it from me, I have ADHD. But instead of being told your too hyper and crazy and the negative remarks of 25 years ago this is what my wife told our six year old.

Son, you have a special kind of energy, a super power. And we must teach you how to use it. So me, daddy, aumma (aka grandma), your teacher and your doctor are going to help teach you how to control your super power.

We will be trying everything possible before medication, so behavior awareness and modification, as well as diet and sleep patterns. But even after two days and being “full of energy” at church he told me, “yes daddy, I know, I was a little crazy, but I have a special kind of energy and I don’t know how to control it yet.” He doesn’t feel bad about being different, he just has something that others don’t, and like Superman, or Ninjago, he must learn how to harness the power and use it for good.

Yes you read my title correctly, gift giving is fundamentally broken. There will be some exceptions, but for the most part the only time a person receives a gift is when they expect to receive a gift, i.e. birthday, Christmas, or hallmark holiday. I’m not saying that we need to get rid of gifts. I’m saying that we need to get rid of expected gifts. No one should for any reason expect a gift. Where’s the fun and joy in it, except maybe if you are five. Let’s consider the last time you bought Susie something because you had to, and you got her the dog thingy, and she opened it. What was her face? “Oh Yes!” or “Oh…. thanks, I think…?” And you felt how, when you saw that is wasn’t something she’d really like? So far gift giving seems to suck really badly. You have the same or better odds playing red\black on the roulette table, and at least that has a favorable return if you win.

Sure it’s fun to buy people gifts, except that it’s not when they are expecting a gift from you. When you know they are expecting something, there is this pressure that creates stress, “Oh I have to find a great gift they’ll really like and I only have 24 hours”, since let’s face it we hate buying people expected gifts so we put it off until the last possible second. Then we stressfully and quickly go through the isle looking for something that is just good enough, “Oh Susie likes dogs and this dog thingy is cute so I’ll get that.” What is the batting percentage on this, maybe 50%. So we are stuck buying something with a 50% likelihood they’ll like it because we have to, even though we don’t really want to. I know not in all cases, but think about buying a gift for your one of your in-laws or co-worker cause you got shamed into a secret santa ordeal, now I’ve just lowered the odds. This is even worse for kids who get unhappy because they didn’t get the gift they wanted most, or maybe it’s fair to say that everyone gets like this. Of course those with kids understand the tantrums and\or tears that will be had to be dealt with.

For adults, even teens, receiving a gift can be difficult as well. Think about the last time Grandma gave you a gift. Was it that sweater you have been dreaming of? Well it was a sweater, or dress shirt, but I’m going to guess you didn’t really want it. But then you have to show the fake smile of happiness, “Oh, thanks Grandma for the shirt.” Or maybe you get money from her, in a card that they put a lot of thought into to pick out just for you, “Oh, thanks Grandma for the card.”

Then there is the whole Christmas debacle of shopping through crowds and trying to find deals because you have to save money to buy everyone a gift and not everyone has money like Bill Gates. Holiday gift giving adds stress and undue financial burden into the mix. So we end up stressing about buying gifts with money we barely have or don’t have, then give someone something that with all honesty, probably gets put in the garage or attic. Maybe it’s clothing they’ll wear, or not and they donate it to Goodwill. Or they return it and get something they “want” or need. So we get pushed around in the store and buy something only to have a less than 50% chance they’ll like it and\or use it. So during Christmas everyone expects to receive gifts from family, and I would venture to guess that over 50% of the time they didn’t really want or need at least 50% of the gifts they received. So we are buying people stuff they don’t want and don’t really like because it’s a day where we are supposed to buy a gift.

My brother and sister-in-law for Christmas take blankets, sweaters and socks to homeless people. The day that most homeless people feel absolutely forgotten about, they actually receive a gift they want and need. And 95% of them are beyond grateful and joyful for the two gifts they just received. Yes two. One was the sweater, but more importantly, two was the fact that someone brought them something on a day they didn’t expect to get anything, and that is the most important part about giving and receiving gifts.

Here’s the joy of gift giving! Remember back to that one time when you bought someone something out of the blue, no special day, just you saw something that Susie would love and bought it for her and gave it to her for no reason, other than you care for Susie and really wanted her to have this thing. I’ll will to guess that Susie loved it and was completely shocked, and that little thing means more to her than the dog thingy you got her for her birthday. The joy in gift giving, and receiving, comes from the completely unexpected.

Maybe Christmas and birthday’s need to go the way of Thanksgiving, more about spending time with one another, having fun and eating. Rather than some stress filled, jacked up day that we are all glad when it is over and done. I know not everyone has a bad time, but if you read any of the holiday health articles, they’re all about managing stress and depression during the holidays. It is bad enough we stress about spending time with family, but to add in additional stress of gifts, expectations and finances is unneeded. So maybe we should start to consider a change to gift giving. Let’s move away from expected gifts and toward unexpected gifts. Plus if you need a holiday, be it hallmark or not, to remind you to give someone something as a gesture that you care about them, then you are doing it wrong. You shouldn’t need a “day” to tell someone you love them with flowers, a toy, jewelry, or anything else. If you care for someone, gift giving should come naturally, not be forced.